Hawking’s main discoveries, which had a huge impact on the development of modern science

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  • Gravitational singularity

Einstein’s theories of gravity admit the existence of a singularity – a subset of points in space-time where an astronomical object, under the influence of the gravitational field, appears to be infinitely curved. The absence of any experimental confirmation of the existence of this very singularity did not prevent Stephen Hawking and another physicist, Roger Penrose, in the 1970s from formulating the theory of the appearance of the Big Bang, from which the history of the Universe is believed to have begun as a result of the expansion of the singularity.

  • Thermodynamics of black holes

The second law of thermodynamics of black holes (the area of ​​the event horizon of a black hole can only increase) was formulated by Stephen Hawking. Hawking also tried to explain the paradox of the disappearance of information in a black hole, also known as the No-hair theorem.

  • Hawking radiation

Most physicists believed that nothing (not even light) could leave the event horizon of a black hole, but Hawking, using quantum mechanics, showed that black holes actually emit radiation (thermal) and continue to do so until all their energy is completely consumed. and subsequent complete disappearance. However, this process is very slow and the evaporation of a full-fledged black hole with the mass of the Sun will take time equivalent to the age of the Universe, that is, more than 13 billion years. The described process was named in honor of the physicist – Hawking radiation.

  • The origin of galaxies

The British physicist was also one of the proponents of the inflationary model of the Universe, which assumes a period of accelerated expansion in comparison with the standard model of a hot Universe in the early stages of the Big Bang. Hawking was the first to describe how the most subtle changes in the early stages of expansion could lead to the appearance of different galaxies in the universe.

  • The wave function of the universe

In an effort to create a theory of quantum gravity, Hawking, together with James Hartl in 1983, admitted the existence of the wave function of the universe in the framework of the infinite Hartle-Hawking model. This model, which is still used by physicists to carry out various calculations, says that the universe came out of nowhere, that is, there is no root cause from which it all began.

  • Forecasts

As for predictions, Stephen Hawking believed that black holes could well turn out to be a door to parallel worlds, although he admitted that an object that got into such a “portal” could leave it completely differently. He also assumed that in the future humanity will learn to create small black holes that are a source of unlimited energy.

“There is no heaven or afterlife for broken down computers; that is a fairy story for people afraid of the dark,” he told the Guardian (News). But how did Stephen Hawking die? 

Over the past several years, in all his lectures and speeches, Stephen Hawking has tirelessly repeated that humanity needs to begin colonizing other planets as soon as possible because otherwise it is doomed to inevitable death. The astrophysicist gave a variety of forecasts regarding the doomsday and cited many potential apocalyptic scenarios: overpopulation, climate change, or an asteroid fall. In addition, he recognized the potential benefits of artificial intelligence in robots, while voicing various concerns about the arrival of machines that will be smarter than humans, including the disappearance of a number of professions.


In general, one can treat Hawking’s statements in different ways, but they always “hooked” and prompted thinking. And for the property that he left behind, we are in deep debt. Let’s hope someday “we will definitely reach the stars,” as Hawking bequeathed. Well, “your move, Elon Musk.”

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